While Game of Thrones is certainly a work of fictional fantasy, its author George R. R. Martin maintains that the books have been influenced by actual history as much as they have been by works of fictional, epic fantasies. The easiest comparison to the Game of Thrones is the War of the Roses, a series of battles over the English throne in the 15th Century. The war was between the honorable Yorks of the North (like the Starks) and the cunning, rich Lancasters (Lannisters) of the South.
In Chinese culture, the dragon symbolizes excellence, boldness, perseverance, divinity, power, valiancy, heroism and nobility. The dragon continues to overcome until he finds success. He is decisive, intelligent, energetic, optimistic and ambitious.