In order for the US government to make any difference at all, they would need to funnel money directly into science programs beginning in the first grade, and carry on every year through high school. This would have to be separate somehow from the schools themselves, or the money would be misappropriated into more goodies for teachers of the non-science variety.
Our kids need to be stimulated by science when they are young enough to be amazed by it, before they acquire the "oh, so what? I'm so bored..." attitude that permeates their lives younger and younger every year, it seems. I don't pretend to have all the answers, I only know that the pathetic American public school system isn't even producing enough science students to eventually fill all the science jobs that are required in the country right now. America is desperate for scientists and engineers, so desperate that they are filling sensitive positions with foreign nationals.
The American public school system has failed our children in dozens of ways, and the failure to teach science adequately, in this day that is completely filled with science and technology, is utterly unforgivable.
If the United States government would spend out more to the advancement of science, it would lead to creation of job opportunities and thus help in combating unemployment. It would also promote economic growth since unforeseen emergencies can be adequately be dealt with. Spending more on science would also result in better and improved health for everyone.