You can if you continually listen to loud music. You won't suddenly go deaf if you listen to music at a loud volume to hear it over the storm, though. The best bet is to just not listen to loud music at all. Avoid it at all costs.
You cannot go deaf by listening to music while storming. This is just some community's beliefs, which are fiction and not a fact. However, loud music can deafen a child's ears in the sense that her ear organs are still tender.