Time Block. Schedule specific blocks of time for very specific tasks or work, then remove all things that will take your focus away; phone, tv, email, etc. This way you dedicate your thought process to that task and have a great success rate of concentration and completion.
No such thing since our brain is always processing different thing in to account. but i suggest a library since its quiet and since each person is working, it will motivate you and give you a sense of accomplishment at the end of your session.
You can... um... Do, you know... uh... What was the question...? (JK. Turn off the TV, computer & phone & pick up a puzzle book instead. The "Brain Games" book series is fun - full of simple IQ-like puzzles that excercise your mind. Distractions are everywhere. Sometimes you just have to create some quiet time to refocus.)
Keep a list of what you have planned and tun off any distractions around you. A good place to focus, or work is outside. If your just listening to someone talk, look straight into their eyes and listen, do not fool or mess with anything around you.
Yes: it is called Ginkgo biloba and that greatly improves blood circulation in the brain. There are several preparations available that have concentrated Ginkgosides to boost brain function and you can talk to your Pharmacist about what is available in your area. Many of the techniques mentioned above are valid and will be helpful, but Ginkgo actually improves the way your memory works. It is your enthusiasm for the subject that will focus your attention during study - subjects you love or feel confident in are all guaranteed to hold your concentration. Are you enthusiastic over your study program?
Listen to soft music.Do Pranayam and breathing exercises. Do yoga. Keep a lighted candle and stare at it for a long time. Control your anger. Eat almonds for a good memory. Keep yourself away from stress, tension for this affects your health too. Live in a peaceful surroundings or go for a holiday at a peaceful place for few days...Happy to Help!