What did people use before cat litter was invented ?
sand,most cats were kept outside.
I'm assuming sand, or other materials like it.
kitty litter has only been used in the last 50 years or so. Cats were (are supposed to be) an outside pet.
Cats would let you know when they needed to go outside and use the neighbors flower garden to do their business.
Sand & it is much cheaper than kitty litter. I used Sand when I had a cat 30 years ago as I lived near the beach so it was free.