I've had cats and dogs do this, and I've heard it called "frapping." FRAP stands for Frenetic Random Activity Periods. The cat or dog will race around for several minutes at top speeds, usually back and forth within a confined space. I'm not sure what triggers frapping, and I've seen in mostly in younger animals. If your cat does it very often, you might want to consult your vet, but otherwise, it's probably just releasing some energy.
Wow. If only cats could talk we could really hear some strange tales. Having had a number of cats this sort of odd behavior can result from a number of causes from pure playfulness to adjusting to a new environment to health issues such as having fleas or dental problems. I adopted a cat who did this for more than six months before she began to get adjusted to living in a new home with no children.
You will have to get familiar with the personality of your cat to see what seems to be driving this behavior. Most importantly make sure that are no health issues as these could become serious (and expensive) over time.