I am honestly wondering if your looking for a real answer or for someone to just say god did it? Conscience depends on many things. It depends on intellect, psychology, brain structure, mental stability, nurture, our senses, and culture. If our minds are molded or effected in any way then it can effect our conscience. Most of know that cold blooded murder is wrong but for people like Charles Manson his conscience is obviously flawed and void of that fact. That could be due to drugs affecting brain and/or a hard upbringing that effected how he learned an evolved. a severely mentally retarded child may not know that it's not ok to steal other people's food at a restaurant. If something happens that effects our brian or intellect that can really effect our sense of judgement. Our evolved brains are the key to our conscience.
We are not as conscious of our decision making processes as we lead ourselves to believe. Many unconscious brain organelles, primed with typically early childhood thought patterns, have great sway over what we believe are conscious decisions and choices - and yes, we can prove this scientifically. A mechanism has been identified in brain functioning that convinces us that all decisions and choices are made with full conscious awareness - but this is a delusion - and there are scientific studies as to why we have maintained these mechanisms of action within the brain for so long. Oh yeah: "conscious" is not "conscience".
This is a difficult question to ask. To begin with, we have not yet found what "consiousness" really is. So it is rather hard to find out 'why' we have it. Philosophers have always thought that consiousness is what differentiates us from the animals (and not "from the other animals"), even though this has been a matter of debate in the last years (some people think that animals have consiouness too, something which is very difficult to prove). Our consiousness doen't seem to help us in any way as far as our species survival is concerned, and that is why many think that it has something to do with us having a 'higher' purpose in life we have not yet realized.
10 For if anyone sees you who have knowledge eating in an idol’s temple, will not the conscience of him who is weak be emboldened to eat those things offered to idols? 11 And because of your knowledge shall the weak brother perish, for whom Christ died? 12 But when you thus sin against the brethren, and wound their weak conscience, you sin against Christ.
13 (for not the hearers of the law are just in the sight of God, but the doers of the law will be justified; 14 for when Gentiles, who do not have the law, by nature do the things in the law, these, although not having the law, are a law to themselves, 15 who show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and between themselves their thoughts accusing or else excusing them)
I'm guessing you may mean 'conscience'. Conscious means being aware or awake. Having a conscience separates us from the animals, plants and machines. It's both our great gift and our burden, depending on the amount and depth of it we possess. It is part of what defines our character.
Because Jiminy is omniscient. He appears rarely, but he's there for everybody. This is plainly obvious; whenever an important moral action must be taken, one hears an awful lot of chirping. Chirp Chirp!!
God gave us a conscience so we can stand back and analyze ourselves, our decisions, our lives. It can guide us toward a good decision or warn us from a bad one. Genesis 3:7,8 show that Adam and Eve had a conscience because thy realized what they did was wrong.
If you meant a "conscience", it's evolutionary. Societal animals developed a conscience/sense of inherent morality because it was advantageous to the cohesion of their societal group and thus conferred a survival advantage. This means that any genetic propensity for those traits was passed on more frequently than those without.
Because primates must invest so much time and energy in the child-bearing and child-rearing process(it is this that allowed for the development of larger brains), we banded together to form societies to share in those duties and for protection. Those groups could only stay together and functioning if its members had a sense of morality, so those that did produced more surviving children than groups and individuals that didn't.