Can you transfer to a university after attending a community college for one year?
Yes. Maybe even sooner. My sister transferred to Berkeley after a semester at a community college.
If you don't have an AA or AS, then you need to apply as if you were going in from High School.
Yes if your grades are good enough. You will still have to go through the admission process though.
Some credits may transfer but not all of them better to get a two year degree then transfer