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What's the neuroscience behind recognizing an object's intrinsic properties?

We know that money has value and people may accept it for a trade. We know that lighters emit fire and make things hot on contact. We know that cars travel and will get people places. What's the neuroscience behind this? Please, no obvious answers like "memory". Sorry but I get those a lot; this time I want a scientific explanation.

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Well I just recently learned about this in psychology like 2 weeks ago and I have a test next week so I'll take a hit at it. It basically has to do with our sensations, I suppose. When it comes to sensations, it's either top-down processing or bottoms-up processing (these are the two theories). Top-down says that the individual has an empty head and all meaning comes from the signal itself. Whereas bottoms-up says that we're already expecting to see something and because of this the slightest fragment we see has that new meaning. More in comments..

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Or you could also be talking about in terms of importance, which would be coming from the hippocampus. The hippocampus acts as a relay station for all memories and all feelings. Whatever is considered most important emotionally is the first factor. More or less, emotion is the most important factor when determining what goes in the long term memory.
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DukeCityMuscle

Your question is asked all the time in the fields of cognition and artificial intelligence, and the sad truth is there are many different opinions and no conclusive answers. The one thing all scientists agree on is that training-- what you see or get shown, the interactions you observe, and the number of times you see a consistent cause and effect interaction-- is at the core of recognition. You don't necessarily know, for example, that a lighter emits fire. Think of the first time you saw an electrical lighter or an expensive butane lighter with an invisible flame. You you do learn that more often than not a lighter emits flame. So even if some examples don't exactly fit the expectation, they're close enough in enough ways. That's the result of training.

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Thanks, Duke!
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If it has a "halo" around it. That's how they recognized Jesus. You can't separate the mind from its spiritual qualities nor can you quantify them.

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What do you mean?
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It's like spiritual; i.e. not measurable or quantifiable. Past experience helps.
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