Well the word "Christian" is a mighty broad category, but without getting into that we can say that it originated as a defined movement apart from Judaism around the second century C.E. (AD). Organically it is rooted in Judaism and matured around the person Jesus as the Christ who is the Son of God with the essence of being "God of very God". There were various groups that had differing perspectives on the nature of Jesus (this is referred to as the period of "heterodoxy") during the first two centuries as the "church" naturally formed in response to the explosive growth of followers of Jesus as their Lord and Savior. Christianity became a recognizable religion once it had arrived upon what the canon of authoritative scripture was to be (the Bible). This was internally known as early as ca. 250 C.E. Latter in formal church counsels in the 5th century were these writings explicit in terms of church government, though these scriptures were in use from very early on and likely from the moment they were read and circulated in local groups. The first Christians are described in the book of Acts as followers belonging to the "Way" as in how Christ proclaimed to be "the way, the truth and the life". Bottom line is that without Jesus seen as Christ (the exact expression of the Father) and the established canon of scripture you don't have what is the origin of Christianity.
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Last edited at 10:19PM on 2/19/2013
A renegade Jew rebelled against his religion and decided to create his own. He gathered a large group of followers and based his new religion on the only other religion he knew, Judaism. Somewhere along the line, he (or someone else) claimed that he was God's biological son, which everyone believed, despite the fact that it simply is not possible, whichever way you think about it.
Since the son of man was created we could say that Christianity was then observed, when he then was presented to earth in the womb of the virgin Mary, and began as a child to preach the word of his heavenly father, and later, took the scrolls which where written about him, he said this in whom I speak is here before you, explaining, the teachings of his coming to earth is at hand, meaning I am here. His will, was not of his own desire, yet even as he said, " I am here to do the will of him who sent me, our heavenly father" and throughout his years, he performed miracles,people feared him because no one had seen such miracles,this along with him claiming himself as the son of god, in which he was and is, for he could not lie,( for their was and is no sin in him.) led him to be crucified, (in which he knew, before he came here, that it would be so) and it has continued from then.
The church began 50 days after Jesus' resurrection (c. A.D. 35). Jesus had promised that He would build His church (Matthew 16:18), and with the coming of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:1-4), the church-ekklesia (the "called-out assembly")-officially began. Three thousand people responded to Peter's sermon that day and chose to follow Christ. The initial converts to Christianity were Jews or proselytes to Judaism, and the church was centered in Jerusalem. It is quite proper to say that Christianity has its roots in Judaism. The Old Testament laid the groundwork for the New, and it is impossible to fully understand Christianity without a working knowledge of the Old Testament http://www.gotquestions.org/history-Christianity.html
'Christian' was a word coined originally to mock those people who were members of the Christos religious sect in the ancient Roman Empire in the first century. Those people, mostly non-jews by then, who followed the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth and believed he is Christ. These Christ followers took the term and made it their own. The term was not used until after Christ had ascended i dont believe.
The Christian religion originated from an offshoot of Essene Judaism taught by Paul, with the figure of "Christos" taking the central role as the claimed Jewish Messiah. The name "Jesus" was not mentioned until later, with his "story" only being told some two generations after his alleged death. It shows great similarity to older myths of the region .
The root religion, Judaism, was in turn an offshoot if the Canaanite religion. The Jews' god, Jehovah, was originally the sky deity of the Canaanites, one of the seventy sons of El Elyon (their supreme deity). When the Hebrews broke off from the Canaanites they took Jehovah as their patron god, but it wasn't until contact with the Greeks that they became monotheistic and believed Jehovah to be the only gods around the eighth century BCE.
If you read the bible, it appears that this Jewish guy believed that the belief in god was more important than the following of arcane Jewish laws and traditions (for which there are many). There were many who felt the same way and thus he created a following. Many others felt that NOT following Judaic law was heresy and disrespectful to the ancestors as well as the leaders of the Israelites. Supposedly, Jesus was in Jerusalem during the Jewish festival of Passover and the Jewish leadership, fearing that this rebel rouser was about to start trouble (which could have led to a riot and thus a lethal response by the Romans) decided to turn him over to the Romans for execution. His death did little to deter his followers who now used the Greek word "Christos" or "Anointed" in English to distinguish themselves from those who followed ALL the Jewish laws.