Literature wise, I think that there have been some books written about viruses that cause similar traits, however traditionally it was a bite or the exchange of blood that caused one to become a Vampire.
Honestly, my best friend is a Psychic vampire, but she is harmless. Although, she can make you feel uncomfortable at times and sometimes she needs blood to build up her energy. She sold her soul to the devil during Witchcraft in order to become one. She is still like any other human being though. She just has the eyes of a Psychic vampire and the fangs. If you do sell your soul to the devil, your soul goes to Hell after death too. It's your choice, to believe it or not though. Psychic vampires are real though, but they do not drink continuously drink blood just like how fictional vampires do. Selling your soul to the devil is not safe though, and it's better to not do it.
There are other vampires, but they are not real vampires. They are part of a Gothic tradition, where the Goths, drink animal blood or some human blood, then consider themselves as a vampire, but none of them possess the real aspects of a vampire.
in the cirque du freak saga they change people into vampires by "blooding" them the human and vampire bothe cut all their finger tips then touch them together and exchange blood. depending on how much blood you exchange you'll become half or full vampire