The ingredients mainly include OC, CS, CR, CN (phenacyl chloride), nonivamide, bromoacetone, xylyl bromide and syn-propanethial-S-oxide (from onions). The security of CS is much better than CN, and the irritation is more strong. OC and nonivamide are natural, non-toxic agents, so they are widely used as the preferred stimulating agent.Ethyl bromoacetate is also a lachrymator and has a fruity, pungent odor. It is a highly toxic alkylating agent and may be fatal if inhaled. http://www.guidechem.com/cas-105/105-36-2.html here is more details.