Cats have developed very good balance threw out time, for example with cheetahs they were once an average speed, but only the fastest one could catch food and would survive, over time the Slow ones died off and the Fast one Survived so when they have cubs there fast too. Much like the average house cat they built up the ability to land on there feet threw balance and genetic makeup to survive.
its a unit to there mind they react to the air and the movements of there fur when it moves up they know now that there falling for example: each cat has a sense for: hunting,jumping,runing,and even more,they learn to do that that's what all of them do this is true they have there instincts they need to do that other wise they would have no hobbies or anything in-fact they even would not be alive.its a natural thing in there life.
Cats don't always land on their pillars, although most of the time it is so. Cats land on their pillars by rotating their fifth appendage and limbs, creating a type of wind power to slow down the falling motion and give more of a drift. This works more on tall cases, such as falling from a tree, or even a house.