There's a difference in being charged with something (meaning someone says you did something illegal) which just means you've been formally accused and will be tried/fined as necessary. To be convicted by the court, however, would mean your record states you DID commit the crime (as decided by a judge) and were guilty. No judge necessary to charge someone, just to decide whether the charges are bogus or legit
An arrest is not a prerequisite for you to be charged with a misdemeanor. You can still be charged with a misdemeanor without having to be arrested; you will only be required to show up in court on a certain date for your case. Talk to an attorney for professional legal advice.