NJs, it's going to depend on what all you want. If you want coloring and detail that all costs more money. If it's just a black outline, that will obviously be cheaper. A lot of shops charge by the hour, so you're probably looking at a minimum of a 2 hour deal. And depending on how detailed you want the tat, maybe more than one day. You can figure on spending at least a couple hundred bucks. (Wish I could help you more) As for tipping, I've never tipped my tattoo artist. Because the guy who has done my tats, owns the shop. So the money he makes from the tat is his. I would think $5 would be better than nothing.
Well, I know my friend had gotten a small tattoo (probably no bigger than your finger and no wider than 3 of your fingers side by side) and it cost like $90. If you want it to cover the shoulder, you're looking at a couple hundred bucks, depending on how detailed you want it. Just be sure that it's something that has a lot of meaning to you.
The one I got on my upper thigh was about $250 and it's a little smaller than my hand, and that was more than 15 years ago, so my guess would be at least double that. But as has been mentioned, it will really depend on exactly what you are having done, and the amount of color/detail work that is going into it.
Best bet would be to go to a couple shops (or email them) with either a pic, or a description of what you are thinking of getting, and they should be able to give you at least a basic estimate of how much it will be.