What is a good ratio of military to civilian population?
How many civilians does it take to support an individual soldier?
Setting up the scenario: Pre-industrial society, (think horse and wagon, oxen plows, strictly human or animal labour) with a simple but well-trained military... something akin to a Roman Legion or a feudal lord's standing army. No gunpowder weapons. There would need to be blacksmiths and things to maintain armor and weapons and farriers for the horses, grooms, quartermasters, messengers, and all the immediately attached services such a militia would require, as well as the farmers producing surplus food and livestock (horses for cavalry, oxen for pulling seige machinery), miners and lumberjacks and what-have-you producing raw materials, and so on and so forth.
How many military personnel could be sustained by the rest of the population, do you think? feel free to assume your own population size.. i can determine my ratio from there.