I wonder that myself sometimes ! Not that I'm a great person, but everything in my life lately has gone down the drain. It's a strange thing that life deals out bad things to good people. I guess it's just life in general and it always seems that the good suffer the most. I wish I could explain better but I'm thinking that life throws some curveballs at us and we have to learn how to deal with it !
Because God gave us free will, which means there is sin and people can make bad decisions; but we can also make good decisions to follow God! Even so the people who make bad decisions can still affect us. Thereby; bad things happening to good people.
Because nice guys finish last and good people get kneed in the groin at the starting gate! A divine creature has nothing to do with it. Evil people far outnumber good people on earth and therefore when you go against the grain, you pay. FYI I am one of those individuals who got kneed in the family jewels at the starting gate!
God allows bad things to happen....so that we will come closer to Him in our time of sorrows and tribulations....it helps us to grow....it helps our prayer lives....it helps us to proclaim God's holy word....it helps us to be stronger in our faith...God also chastens those that He loves. here's an example: God had a mission for Jonah...but Jonah went his own way...he was on a ship...and a storm came...and all the other's on the ship were really afraid that someone disobeyed God....so they tossed Jonah overboard..and a whale (fish) swallowed him up...and Jonah sat in the belly of this great big fish for 40days and night...it gave Jonah time to reflect on what God had told him and where he was to go. then the whale at the end of the 40th. day spit Jonah on the shoreline...and it was the very place where God wanted him to be at....sometimes when we disobey what God wants us to do....He allows bad things to happen to us.
We tend to be tested by God, but it usually ends up being for our own benefit because all these test only make us much stronger and faithful people. If you look back in life and think about all these "tests" and all you will have later you will see that it was worth it because God will compensate you greatly for your faith in Him. Sometimes it is also his way of reminding you that he is there with you and you seem to have forgotten him.
Someone made a bad choice that had sucky consequences. Either the person themselves or someone else or, in the case of natural disaster and some illnesses, they just happen because of th inherently sinful nature of the world. Nothing anywhere guatantees so called 'good' people are immune from the consequences of inherent and/or personal sin. You screw up there are consequences, whether you are 'good' or not. Sometimes others screw up and the consequences include you. Sometimes sucky stuff just happens and its no ones fault. Its the way this sinful, flawed world operates.
Why do good things happen to bad people? Because there are manifestly more of them than good people; in fact, there is a lack of good people, and a surplus of partly good people. I am amazed at the good that is done to partly good people! The question is a common one called the problem of theodicy. There are at least 5 answers that philosophers have attempted, and some are more satisfying than others. Here is the wiki on theodicy and I can recommend it for a beginning of your study of philosophy: http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodicy
"Good" isn't the same to us as it is to God, what seems "bad" to us is not necessarily what is "bad" to God. See, His perspective is so much bigger than ours, and He knows a lot more about the big picture than we do. We cannot know everything that is inside the mind of God, but what we do know is that God is good (in the definition established above) though our minds cannot fully grasp Him. We live in a fallen world, all of which is touched by sin. But we can rest assured that nothing is outside of God's control. And He knows the whole story from beginning to end and what will happen after the smoke has cleared.