Basically anything that is run by federal money, is either currently closed, or will soon be closed due to lack of funding, with the exception of essential services.
The main issue is that the GOP wants to de-fund, or in some other way prevent the Affordable Care Act from being fully enacted. So any compromises that they are attempting to do, that include action against the ACA, are going to fail - it's pretty much a non-issue at this point, and the GOP just can't seem to understand that this is a Law that was legally passed, and more or less upheld by the Supreme Court. They are like little children who can't get their way, so they just keep stamping their feet and try to pretend that if they scream about it long enough someone will give in.
There is a straight compromise bill that is ready to go through, that doesn't include anything about the ACA, however my understanding is that even though a majority of GOP are behind passing it, Speaker of the House Boehmer refuses to put it to a vote, because he refuses to leave the ACA out of it. - http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/02/clean-funding-bill_n_4031784.html
obama is trying to force his health care plan on all americans (NOTE: Obama doesnt even use the health care that he wants us to use) so the senate shut down the government. America needed a budget by a certain date as to what they will spend our tax money on, but a certain side doesnt want to cover for obama care. until they reach an agreement, most government funding programs are not being paid for. obama care just means more taxes for us, so we can pay for someone else's innsurance (that doesnt pay taxes usually).
We could clear it up if you want but based off what you knew and what you know now, how do you see it? Cause these answers are helpful but quizzing you to see if you understand should be part of the process.
The main things that will affect the average citizen in the short term is the lack of FDA, EPA, CDC, inspections. The other effects will be felt more and more the longer the budget remains hostage to the extremists in the House.