Steven Pinker: Language Instinct. It's about how the languages appeared and developed where, who, when and how it appeared, and some other very interesting facts about languages. Really entertaining, and not so long book.
I wouldn't know - the book, but it would include that in the title. Possibly the first - written language, by the Sumerians. Before writing, how could you tell? Nobody would make any effort, way back then, that boast of another countries ''gold reserves'' or ''powerful army''. Today, there are thousands of languages spoken which includes 'dialects', or 'area specific' within a country language. Like ''country'' versus ''city'', or ''hillbilly (pardon me, folks)", or like 'gypsy' in the Greek Mediterranean area. Latin based languages are English, French, German, Spanish, and more. ''Cryllic-based'' languages are Russian, Greek (I think) and others. Oriental languages, 'pictorally' based, include Chinese (of which there are two, Mandarin and another I cannot remember), Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and all those. Then there are languages that are obselete, or the country was overthrown, or out of existance', innumerable unknowns. Plus the ones we DO know - of -, but cannot decipher, ancient ones. There's one someone made up to bypass language barriers, Esperanto, and "Pig Latin". Basically, language started 50 - 35,000 year ago and printing with the Sumerians. Don't forget ''Cave Paintings". Good Luck.