The first camera was invented in 1840 by a man named Alexander Wolcott. Photographs were taken prior to that, but it wasn't really a camera that was used to make the photographs, but a large wooden box. You can find more information here: http://photography.lovetoknow.com/First_Camera_Invented
Well there were many steps leading up to this actual; invention by John Strognofe in 1685 such as Isaac Newton discovering white light is composed of different colors. Look here for more information: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Who_invented_the_camera
The first camera was invented by a man named Alhazen it was called Camera Obscura. It produce images upside down but the first working camera was invented by Alexander Wolcott these images did not fade over time.