In Aristotle's ethical work, "Nicomachean Ethics," he describes human nature as having rational and irrational psyches as well as a natural drive for creating society, gaining knowledge, finding happiness and feeling connected with God. More broadly, Aristotle believed that every species, including humans, had their own nature, and it was their natural aim to fulfill that nature.Know More
Aristotle believed that humans should pursue the fulfillment of their true natures, directing their efforts to the most beneficial end. Aristotle asserted that philosophy serves this purpose by allowing the rational mind to guide the desires of the irrational psyche towards fulfillment. Aristotle referred to this achievement as eudaimonia, or flourishing. In this way, Aristotle saw philosophy as a kind of bridge between the rational mind and the irrational mind, two psyches that humans dually possess. According to Aristotle, the practice of the virtues was integral to humans fulfilling their true nature.
Aristotle firmly believed that humans were social animals by their nature, writing, "Man is a political animal." Because of this, Aristotle said that society was integral to humans, not only in their true nature, but in how humans came to perceive themselves. So, while perception of self was connected to the role of the society, Aristotle also asserted that humans constructed their view of themselves by realizing their potentialities through practice of virtue, which is why virtue was a very integral aspect to a human's development, according to Aristotle.Learn more about Mythology
Puritans believed that human nature was inherently sinful with salvation only attainable through God's grace; however, Puritans also believed in predestination, which stated that only a chosen few were eligible with no hope of recourse for the rest. Those who belonged to the elite elect were liable to lose their privilege through sinful behavior, which had to be guarded against constantly.Full Answer >
Transcendentalists believed in Christian Unitarianism, in the efficacy of human nature, the unknowable nature of religious truth and the corrupting influence of society. Transcendentalists were influenced by a variety of diverse sources, including Romanticism, German idealist philosophy and the Hindu religion.Full Answer >
Medieval scholasticism is both a school of philosophy and a method for learning developed between the 12th and 16th centuries A.D. Best understood for its attempts to reconcile classical philosophy, particularly that of Aristotle, with Christian theology, it grew to include epistemology, the philosophy of knowledge; philosophies of science and nature; psychology; and economic theory. Medieval scholasticism was taught in cathedrals and universities.Full Answer >
Aristotle was one of the most important ancient Greek philosophers, best known for his writings that cover a wide variety of subjects, such as metaphysics, music, politics and poetry. Aristotle was a student of Plato and the mentor of Alexander the Great.Full Answer >