The primary differences between Northern Renaissance art and Italian Renaissance art were the emphasis placed on religion and anatomical extent to which the human body was portrayed. Northern Renaissance artists were more religious in their approach, while Italian artists were more secular. Too, science was an area in which many Italian Renaissance painters had great interest, and that interest tended to find its way into their art.
The term "Northern Renaissance" paintings is somewhat misleading because it actually refers to the Renaissance anywhere outside of Italy. The Renaissance for Italy was a period of enlightenment in which there were considerable developments in science as well as art. Observations of nature and natural science were of particular interest to Renaissance artists.
Depictions of the human body as anatomically and proportionally correct are evident in countless Italian Renaissance pieces. Such ideals were embraced and backed by wealthy Italian patrons who were eager to support the causes. In contrast, the rest of Europe was still more firmly rooted in Medieval religious ideals, and there were fewer wealthy patrons willing to support artists. As a result, Northern Renaissance art depicts religious subjects and messages, partly in rebellion to what, at the time, appeared to be increasingly secular messages appearing in Italian art of the time.Learn More
The eclectic design and artistic style known as Art Deco thrived throughout Europe and the United States from 1908 through 1935. It gained serious momentum shortly after World War I concluded in 1918. The style began in Paris before fanning out into the rest of the continent and across the Atlantic.Full Answer >
An important concept in Greek art and architecture was arete, a Greek word meaning excellence, particularly in human accomplishments. Through their temples, sculpture, and pottery, the Greeks exhibited the principle of their culture – “Man is the measure of all things.”Full Answer >
Both theodolites and transits are instruments used by surveyors to measure horizontal and vertical angles, measure distances and determine elevations. Transits have an open design and are read through a scale on metal rings. Theodolites have a closed design, are lighter than transits and are read through a scale on glass discs. In general, theodolites are more precise than transits.Full Answer >
Viaducts are types of bridges; the term “viaduct” refers to long bridges or series of bridges that are connected to one another or structurally supported by arches or sturdy platforms between two end towers. As with bridges, viaducts may cross waterways or roadways, and exist primarily to provide an overhead passage to move trucks, cars, trains and pedestrians from one point to another.Full Answer >