The Formalist approach to literature, or Formalism, is a broad branch of literary criticism that seeks to examine a text on its own terms, independent of the text's societal or authorial context. Formalism accomplishes this examination by evaluating the formal aspects of a text. There are several subdivisions within the realm of Formalism, the most notable of which are New Criticism, Russian Formalism and New Formalism.Know More
Russian Formalism was the first branch of Formalism. It began in Russia between 1910 and 1930. The movement was led by Viktor Shklovsky and Roman Jakobsen.
In the United States, Formalism began in the 1930s with New Criticism. New Criticism was spearheaded by a group of intellectuals at Vanderbilt University, called The Fugitives. At the head of The Fugitives was John Crowe Ransom, who published a book called "The New Criticism" in 1938. Both of these groups focused on the grammatical, syntactical, poetical and formal aspects of texts.
New Formalism began in 1985 with the article "The Yuppie Poet" in the Associated Writing Programs newsletter. As of 2014, New Formalism is the most contemporary wave of Formalism. New Formalism developed as a reaction to contemporary mainstream poetry that had abandoned notions of rhyme and meter.Learn more about Literature
Doubling in literature occurs when a pair of characters can be described as two sides of the same coin, though one represents the evil or simply hedonistic side of the other. This concept may have originated in mythology, but it rose to popularity in Gothic literature.Full Answer >
In literature, symbolism refers to using specific symbols to help represent something else, whether it is an idea or quality. Through this literary element, the different symbols allow readers to better understand and interpret a piece of work.Full Answer >
The three main branches of literature are prose, poetry and drama. While historically the branches were quite distinct, modern works from the 20th century and beyond increasingly feature combinations of these different forms.Full Answer >
The seven standards of literature are: artistry, intellectual value, spiritual values, suggestiveness, universality, style and permanence. While genre fiction may contain some of these things, writing that is considered "literature" contains all of them.Full Answer >