The Filipino literary contemporary period is characterized by the use of native languages as the main tool of literary expression rather than foreign languages. The contemporary period began in the 1960s but truly began to flourish following the end of the martial-law dictatorship in 1986.Know More
The Philippines were first invaded by the Spanish in 1521, followed by the United States in 1898 and the Japanese in 1941. Filipino literature transformed to take on the occupiers' language during these times.
A rich culture of folk narratives and traditions served as the foundation of Filipino literature prior to the Spanish invasion in 1521. With the Spanish invasion, these native literary traditions were undermined and replaced with Spanish language traditions. One of the most heralded Filipino writers, Jose Rizal, wrote all his works in Spanish when he called for a revolution against Spanish occupation.
With the invasion of the United States in 1898, the language for literary works turned to English, and new literary forms were introduced, including the short story, essay and free-verse poem. Many Filipino writers during this period attended American and British schools and brought Western literary traditions back to the Philippines. English was suppressed during the Japanese occupation in 1941 and replaced with Japanese literary traditions until 1946, when the Philippines became independent.
The contemporary movement toward the use of native languages in Filipino literature was slow to begin due to the oppressive martial-law dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos from 1972 to 1986. However, following the end of the dictatorship, the Philippines undertook an effort to resurface their native language literary history, and the Philippine Commission on Higher Education made it obligatory to teach Philippine literature to students.Learn more about Literature
Some famous Filipino writers are Maribeth de la Cruz (pen name Martha Cecilia), Carlo J. Caparas, Mars Ravelo, Nick Joaquin, Gilda Olvidado, Lualhati Bautista, Jose Rizal, Francisco Balagtas, Bob Ong and Francisco Sionil Jose. All 10 writers have been recognized with awards in Philippine literature.Full Answer >
Graciano Lopez Jaena was a famous 19th century Filipino author and political activist. His writings span multiple media, but they generally concern social justice issues in his home country of the Philippines and an ardent desire to see it free from Spanish rule. Lopez Jaena's writing career was cut short at the age of 40, when he died of tuberculosis.Full Answer >
The phrase "it takes a whole village to raise a child" is a Nigerian proverb that appears in many different forms in African languages. The central meaning of the phrase is that bringing up children requires the effort of an entire community.Full Answer >
The Victorian era in literature is marked by a shift in the attitude of poets from relaxed to realism-oriented, as well as a shift in popularity from poetry to novels. Novels were granted the title of an art form, and both poems and novels confronted social conflict.Full Answer >