Shading is a technique used in art to represent light and shade by varying the color and intensity of the medium being used. This helps create the illusion of depth and shape in an otherwise flat work.
In pencil drawing, shading is made by applying the most pressure at the point where the shadow is to be darkest and gradually relieving pressure to blend the shade until the effect has been achieved. This should be done holding the pencil loosely between the thumb and forefinger, moving it back and forth across the area to be shaded. Different types of pencils give different results depending on the hardness of the lead, so an artist may use more than one pencil for a drawing.