Diamonds are chemically composed of elemental carbon and are the hardest known natural substances. Physically, industrial-grade diamonds are black in color, due to impurities, and gem diamonds come in a variety of colors, including colorless, red, yellow, orange, green, brown and blue. Diamonds have a high luster and high dispersion.Know More
Industrial diamonds are used in grinding, cutting, polishing and drilling procedures. They are also frequently crushed to produce abrasive powders. Since demand for industrial diamonds exceeds the supply obtained from mining, synthetic diamonds are produced to meet the excess demand. Diamonds are the world's most popular gemstones. Of the $19 billion spent on gemstones in the United States in 2010, $18 billion was spent on diamonds, with less than one billion dollars being spent on colored stones.
The quality of a diamond gemstone is dependent on the four C's: color, cut, clarity and carat. The most highly valued diamonds are those that are completely colorless. Ideally, cut stones have faceted faces that are equal in size and identical in shape. The ideal clarity for a diamond is one which is free from internal flaws and inclusions, which are foreign material particles in the stone. Diamonds are sold by the carat, and small diamonds cost less per carat than their larger counterparts of equal quality.Learn more in Precious Metals & Gems
Sand is primarily composed of finely granulated silica and, depending on its location, can include various rock, coral, shell or lava fragments. It is lightweight and easily transported by wind and water. Its composition directly affects its color, resulting in black, white, pink and green coloring.Full Answer >
Fats, also called lipids, are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Three fatty acid chains attach to one glycerol unit to form a triglyceride, the most common form of dietary fat.Full Answer >
Oxygen gas is free from odor, taste and color, combines with the majority of other elements, supports combustion, is very paramagnetic and has a pale blue color in both its solid and liquid forms. Oxygen is also a part of over 100,000 organic compounds.Full Answer >
Mercury is a naturally occurring metal that is liquid at room temperature. This heavy metal is toxic to humans. It is silver in color, and its high surface tension causes it to form into round drops on surfaces. Mercury is more volatile than any other metal and forms a colorless, odorless gas.Full Answer >