People cannot claim their dogs as dependents on their federal income taxes. According to the Internal Revenue Service Publication 501, a dependent must have a valid tax identification number to be claimed.
However, the costs of buying, training and maintaining a guide dog or service animal are deductible expenses. This includes food, grooming and veterinary care incurred to maintain the health and vitality of the animal. Service dogs are used by visually or hearing impaired individuals or those with other physical disabilities. The expense is considered medical and is claimed on Schedule A, Itemized Deductions, according to IRS Publication 502.