The disadvantages of perfect competition are no scope for economies of scale, lack of product differentiation, reduced research and development expenditures, reduced incentive to develop new technology and the potential for market failure. Perfect competition is largely a theoretical concept.Know More
Perfect competition is an economic market structure characterized by numerous small firms that have no individual control over price, no barriers to entry or exit, perfect information among market participants and the absence of product differentiation. Markets for agricultural products and commodities are the closest real world examples of perfect competition.
Because a perfectly competitive market is comprised of numerous small firms, economies of scale that benefit larger firms are nonexistent. A firm that grew much larger than its competitors would incur fixed costs that would make it financially unfeasible. Perfectly competitive markets also result in dull, homogeneous products because a seller has no incentive to differentiate his product, as everyone is selling the same thing: rice is rice, and iron is iron. Homogeneity reduces the incentive to invest in research and development, as a firm is unwilling to invest resources in activities that, because of perfect knowledge, will benefit the entire industry. Finally, absent government intervention, perfectly competitive markets are prone to market failure when impacted by externalities such as bad weather or supply shocks.Learn more about Business Resources
Polycentric orientation is the practice of decentralizing marketing, research and development of a multinational company to the local market of a country where its products are being sold, according to BizShifts. In this model, a regional manager is employed to market products with awareness to the nuances of the culture instead of attempting to translate a general approach used universally.Full Answer >
The pros of business mergers include factors such as monopoly regulation, research and development, duplication avoidance and network economies, while the cons include factors such as higher prices, less choice and job losses, according to Tejvan Pettinger at Economics Help. Depending upon the scale, business mergers tend to help top executives and shareholders, but consumers and employees tend to suffer most of the cons. However, this depends on each individual merger.Full Answer >
The advantages of a monopoly include reducing resource waste, improving efficiency due to better investments, providing discounts to the economically weak and investing in research and development; some disadvantages include poor service, low quality goods and higher prices, no consumer sovereignty and no competition. When a monopoly has low competition, this may result in consumers getting goods that are either out of date or low in quality.Full Answer >
Imperfect competition is market structure that exhibits some but not all of the characteristics of perfect competition. Forms of imperfect competition include monopoly, oligopoly, monopolistic competition, monopsony and oligopsony.Full Answer >