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What are nursing's four metaparadigm concepts?

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According to the School of Nursing at The College of New Jersey, the four metaparadigm concepts are humans, environment, health and nursing practice. The concept of humans as patients is critical to nursing as the entire practice revolves around caring for people. Nursing must take into account the psychological, biological, sociocultural, intellectual and spiritual facets of humans because these issues affect health.

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Nurses must also work with patients in an interdependent manner to accomplish positive goals and account for the environmental factors that influence human life. The College of New Jersey explains that the environment includes physical, social and political geography. Nurses must administer care while considering the social norms, customs and expectations of a geographical region and the potential threats to the creation of good health.

The concept of health is a dynamic process that works toward eliminating disease and maintaining wellness. Health depends on the physical, social and moral facets of a patient. Health and wellness take into account the possibilities and realities of being able to care for a patient suffering from illness and helping the patient cope with the healing process. Nursing is the instruction and practice of the profession, and nurses advocate for holistic health care that protects freedom, choice and responsibility. The nursing profession relies on advanced practices and theories to provide tools and resources for nurses to achieve patient wellness, according to The College of New Jersey.

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