Raw materials used to make plastic include carbon-rich oil and carbon compounds, called monomers, that are mixed with oxygen, sulfur or nitrogen. Organic compounds, such as ethylene, propylene, styrene, phenol, formaldehyde, ethylene glycol, vinyl chloride and acetonitrile, can also be found in plastics.Know More
Organic or non-organic substances can be added to the plastic mix to change the nature of the plastic. The average content of additives is 20 percent by weight. Additives and fillers are used to reduce the cost of plastic production. Thermoset, or thermosetting, plastics cannot change form once they've cooled. In contrast, thermoplastics are more malleable, and when heat is applied to them they can return to their original form or be easily molded into another shape.
In 1870, chemist John Hyatt reacted nitrocellulose with camphor to make celluloid, a plastic polymer that was then used in camera film, pool balls, dental plates and ping-pong balls. In the 1930s, a chemist from the company Dupont, Wallace Carruthers, invented a plastic polymer made from the condensation of adipic acid and a certain type of diaminohexane monomer. The mixture created a type of plastic that could be formed into a more fibrous substance, like a fabric. Other plastic derivatives include Dacron, Styrofoam, polystyrene, polyethylene and vinyl.Learn more about Manufacturing
There are four main raw materials used to make glass: silica sand, soda ash, dolomite and limestone. In many cases, broken pieces of glass called cullet are also added to these raw materials to help them properly melt when heated.Full Answer >
Steel, concrete, cement and timber are used to build bridges. Other materials include asphalt, aluminum, stone and aggregates, which are a composite of gravel, sand and other materials. Sometimes plastics, titanium and aluminum are used, and, although uncommon, bridges made of tree roots and vines exist in parts of Asia.Full Answer >
The main materials that are used to make glass are sand, soda ash and limestone. These are often mixed with other materials to give the glass specific properties. For example, iron or carbon can be added to the mixture to make the glass a different color.Full Answer >
Using ping pong balls as an example, Paddle Palace explains that the hollow celluloid balls used in ping pong are manufactured using a process that includes die cutting, molding, trimming, gluing, measuring and polishing. The entire process takes more than a week, and the final product isn't perfectly spherical.Full Answer >