Modern physical education began in Germany in the 1800s with the opening of the first gymnasium. Sweden followed suit, then other European nations. By the early 20th century, many public schools worldwide had begun to incorporate physical conditioning into their curricula.
In the United States, the President's Council on Physical Fitness was established in 1956 to promote physical fitness in schools. Under President John F. Kennedy, the program was expanded to include physical fitness testing for elementary school children and was accompanied by a significant public relations campaign. The Presidential Physical Fitness award, honoring students who exceeded certain standards on their physical fitness tests, was established in 1966.
In 1967, Congress passed a law providing for research and training in physical education for the handicapped. This was soon followed by the establishment of the Special Olympics in 1968; the first Special Olympics hosted 1,000 athletes from the United States and Canada. In 1975, federal funding was made available for physical education for students with disabilities.
An enormous change occurred in physical education in 1972 with the enactment of Title IX, which prohibits discrimination based on sex in any educational activity which receives funds from the federal government. Because most educational institutions receive some form of federal funding, Title IX meant women's and girl's sports had to be funded on a basis equivalent to men's and boy's sports.Learn More
Primary functions of the educational system in the United States are to prepare young people for personal and career development and perpetuate the socialization process, which begins at home. At an early age, students learn basic reading, writing and arithmetic skills, which form much of the building blocks for skill and knowledge development as they get older.Full Answer >
Health education in school helps students make informed decisions about diet, exercise, and other aspects of personal health. Without proper health education, it's easy for young people to fall into bad habits or submit to peer pressure during adolescence.Full Answer >
Also referred to as compulsory education laws, laws that required children to be enrolled in school until the age of 16 were set in place in the states in 1852. The first state to require that children attend classes was Massachusetts, and it was done to discourage parents from forcing children to work on farms and to improve reading and writing.Full Answer >
The Education Cess is a tax in India ordered to help cover the costs of government-sponsored programs. The CESS was levied in 2004. Although the rate is assessed at 2 percent of income, it is collected independently of other taxes and applies to all Indian citizens and corporations as well as anyone living in India.Full Answer >