Modern physical education began in Germany in the 1800s with the opening of the first gymnasium. Sweden followed suit, then other European nations. By the early 20th century, many public schools worldwide had begun to incorporate physical conditioning into their curricula.
In the United States, the President's Council on Physical Fitness was established in 1956 to promote physical fitness in schools. Under President John F. Kennedy, the program was expanded to include physical fitness testing for elementary school children and was accompanied by a significant public relations campaign. The Presidential Physical Fitness award, honoring students who exceeded certain standards on their physical fitness tests, was established in 1966.
In 1967, Congress passed a law providing for research and training in physical education for the handicapped. This was soon followed by the establishment of the Special Olympics in 1968; the first Special Olympics hosted 1,000 athletes from the United States and Canada. In 1975, federal funding was made available for physical education for students with disabilities.
An enormous change occurred in physical education in 1972 with the enactment of Title IX, which prohibits discrimination based on sex in any educational activity which receives funds from the federal government. Because most educational institutions receive some form of federal funding, Title IX meant women's and girl's sports had to be funded on a basis equivalent to men's and boy's sports.Learn More
High schools in the United States generally grade on either a letter-based system or number-based system. For the letter system, an A is generally 90 percent or above; a B is from 80 to 89 percent; a C is from 70 to 79 percent; a D is from 60-69 percent and an F is 59 percent or lower.Full Answer >
The "deficit theory" of education posits that students who differ from the norm in a significant way should be considered deficient, and that the educational process must correct these deficiencies.Full Answer >
Most successful science projects will use the scientific method. This process includes the following steps: the question or purpose of the experiment, research, a hypothesis, the experiment, analysis, and finally the conclusion.Full Answer >
Primary functions of the educational system in the United States are to prepare young people for personal and career development and perpetuate the socialization process, which begins at home. At an early age, students learn basic reading, writing and arithmetic skills, which form much of the building blocks for skill and knowledge development as they get older.Full Answer >