In an experiment, reliability signals how consistently the experiment produces the same results while validity signals whether the experiment measures what it is intended to measure. An experiment's reliability does not offer any information about its validity.Know More
When designing an experiment, both reliability and validity are important. With an unreliable experiment, results are untrustworthy. If replications produce different results, it is impossible to interpret the results; however, even a highly reliable experiment sometimes lacks validity. A poorly-designed experiment may produce results that are not directly relevant to the hypothesis, despite reliable replications. For example, if there are confounds in the design, the results may arise for reasons other than those hypothesized when designing the study.
There are several ways to measure reliability. Test-retest reliability involves re-running the study multiple times and checking the correlation between results. If the results are consistent, the test is reliable. Split-half reliability is similar; half of the data are selected at random and compared to the other half. If the measure is reliable, the two halves will be quite similar.
There is no quantitative measure of validity. Instead, validity is typically gauged by discussing the measure with experts, considering in close detail how the measure relates to the hypothesis, and comparing the results with other tests designed to measure the same outcome.Learn more in Writing
In the physical sense, breadth is defined as the measure of the second-largest dimension of an object or its width, whereas depth is generally the distance from the top to bottom or from the front to back of an object. Breadth and depth are also used to explain how a person understands the world. People can have breadth or depth knowledge about particular subjects, notes the University of Guelph.Full Answer >
A proactive approach focuses on eliminating problems before they have a chance to appear and a reactive approach is based on responding to events after they have happened. The difference between these two approaches is the perspective each one provides in assessing actions and events.Full Answer >
One way phrases and clauses differ is in how the nouns and verbs work in relation to each other. Within a clause, a noun functions as a subject and "does" a verb. The nouns within a phrase do not function as subjects, so they do not perform verbs present in the phrase.Full Answer >
Dashes (—) are longer than hyphens (-). Grammatically, dashes are used to set off parenthetical elements, according to the Guide to Grammar and Writing on the Capital Community College website. Hyphens are used to link words and word elements, Oxford Dictionaries state.Full Answer >