The main elements of literature are the theme, setting, plot, narrator and characters in a story. Some other elements of literature include the connotation or implied meaning, symbolism and imagery.
The theme is the central idea or overall lesson that is communicated by a story. It summarizes the moral of a story. The setting of a story includes the time period in which it happens in addition to the place where it occurs.
The plot of a story describes what happens in stages, including the exposition, rising action, climax and resolution. The exposition involves the beginning of the story, while the rising action occurs when a conflict is revealed. Often reached with a major crisis or unexpected event, the climax is the peak of the story. When the conflict is settled, it is referred to as the resolution of the plot.
The narrator is a character who explains what happens in a story. It is not necessarily the person who wrote the story, but the voice who is telling it. The primary characters in a story include the protagonist and the antagonist. The character that the story is developed around is the protagonist. The opposing character who provides a challenge or resistance to the protagonist is called the antagonist.