Fallacies are errors in reasoning used in oral, written and visual arguments to intentionally disguise the lack of logic or to substitute for factual argumentative points. A fallacy in logic is an error in reasoning that renders an argument logically invalid. Hundreds of fallacies have been identified and labelled. Fallacies are commonly found in everyday life, particularly in advertisements and politics.Know More
Campaigns for political office frequently employ logical fallacies. Common examples of fallacies used by candidates include ad hominem attacks against the opponent instead of the topic; false dichotomy or false dilemma arguments, in which a limited number of options are unfairly presented with the implication that choice must be made from only these; and the straw man argument, in which the reasoner sets up a weak argument and then knocks it down by oversimplifying the opponent's position and then refuting the oversimplification.
Fallacies are found in visual arguments and arrangements as well because visual information can be distorted or manipulated just as words can. Because people tend to believe what they see, visual forms of persuasion can be powerful. Various fallacies are used visually, including style over substance, appeal to emotions, appeal to authority and loaded language. Bandwagon fallacies that present the impression that everyone is doing, buying or believing something are commonly used in advertising attempts to persuade a consumer to also do, buy or believe something.Learn more in Public Speaking
In many cases, the way a speaker finishes his remarks is what an audience remembers, and such strategies as taking the audience back to a story that the speaker used at the beginning, bringing that story to its conclusion or incorporating a quotation from a famous person are just two ways to give a speech a memorable closing. Finishing with a call to action is another powerful way to finish a speech.Full Answer >
In a thank-you speech specifically for volunteers, it is vital to specifically explain what the volunteers accomplished and how important it was. The speech needs to praise the volunteers for the hard work asked of them.Full Answer >
In public speaking, several persuasive tips or techniques include emphasizing main points through vocal sounds rising and falling, using gestures to express an idea, asserting judgments about each finding, pre-empting common objectives, establishing common ground, using emotion and creating new approaches for the audience. Utilizing these tips and techniques in persuasive public speaking can help to create a persuasive argument and to influence the audience to agree with the speaker's argument.Full Answer >
The principles to effective communication are process, content and context. This process is complex and nuanced involving items such as a sender, receiver, a message, channel and finally feedback. The goal of all communication is for the receiver to understand the message that is conveyed.Full Answer >