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# How were the continents formed?

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Today's continents were formed when the giant landmass Pangaea separated into smaller continents, due to plate tectonics. Pangaea was a collection of earlier continents.

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Initially, Pangaea broke apart into two large areas, known as Gondwana and Laurasia. Gondwana was made up of what became Australia, India, South America, Africa and Antarctica while Laurasia was composed of Europe, North America and Asia. Eventually, North America split from Laurasia, and South America split from Gondwana, pushed apart by plate tectonics. India split from Gondwana and ran into Asia, creating the Himalayas. Australia and Antarctica also broke off of Gondwana.

Plate tectonics is the theory that the Earth's top layer is composed of a series of plates that move over the hotter layers below. They are pushed apart at continental ridges, like the one in the Atlantic Ocean. Fault lines and subduction zones can also affect how they move.

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## Related Questions

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The formula C = 5/9 x (F-32) is used for converting Fahrenheit to Celsius. Plug in the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit for the term F in the equation. Subtract 32 from F and multiply the difference by 5/9. The result is the temperature in degrees Celsius.

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Several websites provide online tutorials that outline the steps required to solve most math equations, including Coolmath.com, S.O.S. Math, Regents Exam Prep Center and Khan Academy. Tutorials for extremely complex equations or specific math problems are usually not available online.

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According to the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, coyotes typically live 10 to 14 years in the wild. Coyotes in zoos or other facilities live to be as old as 20.