# How to Calculate Complexity for Recursive Algorithms

By Stephanie Ellen , last updated March 13, 2012
The representation of algorithms by recursive programs, or programs that solve a problem by breaking that problem into smaller components, is used in complexity theory. Complexity theory is particularly applicable to computer science, where it's important to know how much run time a particular function might have. Recurrence relations, a relationship where the function T(..) appears on both sides of the equals sign, can be used to calculate the time complexity of recursive functions.
1. Count how many arithmetic operations are contained at each stage in the code. For example, the following code contains one multiplication and one subtraction at each stage:int powerA( int x, int n){if (n==0)return 1;if (n==1)return x;elsereturn x * powerA( x , n-1);}
2. Count how many operations are required to solve the code for a single value of n to obtain a base equation. In this example, when a value of 1 is input into the code, one operation is needed to execute the function, because the problem size reduces from n to n-1 at every stage. Therefore, the base equation is T(1) = 1.
3. Count the number of stages in the code for any number n and then write a general equation. In this sample code, one stage is needed for each subsequent n value. You know from Step 1 that two arithmetic operations are needed for each stage, which gives the following general equation: T(n) = T( n - 1 ) + 2.
4. Write down the recurrence relation, a combination of the base equation and the general equation. The following recurrence relation is true for the sample code:T(n) = T( n - 1 ) + 2T(1) = 1
5. Solve the equations to express T(n) in terms of n. Using algebra, T(n) = T( n - 1 ) + 2 and T(1) = 1 has the solution T(n) = 2n - 1. This equation represents the time complexity for this particular recursive algorithm.
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