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What are the principles of orthographic projection?

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An orthographic projection is a two-dimensional drawing of a three-dimensional object, explains Engineering Essentials. The two-dimensional representation shows the three-dimensional object from six different angles referred to as the six principal views.

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The six principal views required to create an orthographic projection are the front, left side, top, right side, rear and bottom of the object. To correctly draw an orthographic projection, start with the front view, says Engineering Essentials. The front view is the view from which the majority of the object is visible.

The minimal views required to complete an orthographic projection are the standard views, which are the front, top and right side, according to Engineering Essentials. First, draw all the visible aspects of the front view, and then draw horizontal and vertical projectors to create the boundaries for the right side and top views. To draw the top view, use the vertical projectors to complete the visible and hidden features of the object.

The next step is to project from the top view returning to the front view. Then, use the vertical projectors to complete any missing visible or obscured aspects of the front view. Draw a 45-degree projection off of the upper right corner of the box that encompasses the front view. From the top view, draw projections over to the 45-degree line, and then down to create the outermost boundary of the right side view. To complete the orthographic projection, draw the right side view, project up to the top and return to the front from the right side view. Then, draw center lines as needed, instructs Engineering Essentials.

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