In political theory, the "Iron Law of Oligarchy" holds that in any organization or society, an elite will naturally emerge independently of democratic election. The theory holds that as businesses grow, so dow power, and as power grows, so does corruptionKnow More
The elite is referred to as an "organized minority," whereas the other members from whom the elite inevitably wrest control are referred to as the "unorganized majority."
The theory was introduced by the German sociologist, Robert Michels, in 1915, who was later to become a key supporter of Mussolini's fascist regime in Italy. Michels based his theory on the European political parties of his time, noting that the increase of an organization's complexity over time requires a specialized elite (or bureaucracy) and also curtails ordinary member participation in decision-making.Learn more about Types of Government
Some countries that have oligarchy governments include China, North Korea and Venezuela. The former Soviet Union was also considered to be an oligarchy. An oligarchy is a kind of government in which either a few people or a dominant group has all the power.Full Answer >
Many countries have been ruled by an oligarchy, with South Africa during apartheid being one such example (where race was used as the basis for an oligarchy), but Russia and America (where wealth is often the determining factor for oligarchical rule) are both oligarchies. Many countries may be oligarchical in nature, despite having a visibly different official political system.Full Answer >
An elite democracy refers to a system of government in which the leaders of large bureaucratic organizations, corporate, governmental or nonprofit, are able to exercise a significant degree of influence on society. Most of the elected leaders in an elite democracy owe their positions to the sponsorship of these bureaucratic leaders, or elites, and will legislate in a manner that favors them. According to the elite theory in sociology and political science, a small minority of corporate, financial or think-tank policy-discussion organizations wield power to a greater degree than the processes of the state's democratically-elected government.Full Answer >
Communalism refers to a government or system where communes act as independent states. The nation that the states form is a federation of those states.Full Answer >