Dual federalism is when a national government and a state government operate individually, as was the case for the United States until the Great Depression. Dual federalism naturally limits the power of the national government as it gives states the ability to make their own decisions and question the rulings of the national government.Know More
Throughout the United State's dual federalism period, the national government was responsible for issues dealing with the nation, such as national defense, building the economy and dealing with foreign policy. The states took over everything else including their own state economic regulation, local matters and criminal law.
Dual federalism came to an end in part due to the Civil War. During the Civil War, the Southern states believed that they should be able to make their own decisions about important matters, including slavery. The Northern states, however, did not believe that the states should be given pure authority on such an important matter. They also did not believe that the union of the states should be dissolved based on this disagreement. They felt that there should be a unifying single rule on the issue.
When the Great Depression occurred, people were in shock and in trouble. President Roosevelt created the "New Deal" policies, which intruded upon people's lives in a way that the government had not previously done. From here, the dual federalism government of the United States became a cooperative federalism government.Learn more about Types of Government
A federal republic government is divided between two levels of independent sovereignty, the national government and the states (or provinces, in some countries). Unlike a unitary system, the states or analogous subdivision in a federal government are not dependencies of the national authority. A federal republic does not have a monarchy but rather some form of representative government.Full Answer >
The disadvantages of a unitary system include a lack of power balances, the possibility for slow national response because the national government must control everything, the lack of power in the local government and a lack of representation among its citizens. The British government is a unitary system and the United States government is a federalist system.Full Answer >
A federal system of government is characterized by the constitutionally-mandated division of political authority between the national government and sub-national territories, such as states or provinces. While being under one central government, each sub-unit maintains a certain level of political autonomy to better serve its population.Full Answer >
A federal democracy is a political system in which citizens have equal participation in government and government is divided into two sovereign levels, such as a national government and state governments. Because of the extensive geography and population of most federal states, federal democracies are representative in nature. Various countries in western society have adopted versions of federal democracy.Full Answer >