Dual federalism is when a national government and a state government operate individually, as was the case for the United States until the Great Depression. Dual federalism naturally limits the power of the national government as it gives states the ability to make their own decisions and question the rulings of the national government.Know More
Throughout the United State's dual federalism period, the national government was responsible for issues dealing with the nation, such as national defense, building the economy and dealing with foreign policy. The states took over everything else including their own state economic regulation, local matters and criminal law.
Dual federalism came to an end in part due to the Civil War. During the Civil War, the Southern states believed that they should be able to make their own decisions about important matters, including slavery. The Northern states, however, did not believe that the states should be given pure authority on such an important matter. They also did not believe that the union of the states should be dissolved based on this disagreement. They felt that there should be a unifying single rule on the issue.
When the Great Depression occurred, people were in shock and in trouble. President Roosevelt created the "New Deal" policies, which intruded upon people's lives in a way that the government had not previously done. From here, the dual federalism government of the United States became a cooperative federalism government.Learn more about Types of Government
What makes federalism unique is that the distribution of power between state and national government is such that it is not clear who has the final authority. In practice, the tendency in most countries has been for the federal government to have the greater share of power.Full Answer >
Although both federal and confederate governments are multilateral systems of government that entail a central government as well as smaller state or municipal governments, a federal system assigns more power to the central government, whereas a confederate system reserves most of the power for the states. In a confederation, the central government has no power to tax the people or enforce laws.Full Answer >
Block grants in the United States reflect cooperative federalism because they demonstrate a sharing of fiscal responsibility for local and state needs by national government, but they are also a devolution from previous categorical, formula and matching grants. Because they give states greater control regarding how the money will be used, block grants shift power back to the state level. Block grants are believed to have helped the concept of cooperative federalism to continue, but after the earlier types of grants, which carried strict regulations, had already forced state and local governments to become more capable and responsible in their spending decisions.Full Answer >
The disadvantages of a unitary system include a lack of power balances, the possibility for slow national response because the national government must control everything, the lack of power in the local government and a lack of representation among its citizens. The British government is a unitary system and the United States government is a federalist system.Full Answer >