According to the Wex Legal Dictionary, federalism is a governmental system in which two levels of administration control the same piece of land. Federalism is prominent in the governing structures of many current countries, including the United States, India, Belgium and Brazil.Know More
The United States is a federal system because it has government at the state level that has its own responsibilities to the citizens and a government at the national level that has a different set of responsibilities to the same citizens. For example, states build roads, regulate corporations, govern land use and labor, and provide a number of other services for the citizens. The national government, on the other hand, regulates immigration law, provides currency, organizes the armed forces and conducts foreign policy. Sometimes, of course, which government is responsible for what comes into question, and disputes are resolved in the courts. Since the U.S. Civil War, the national government has generally been on the winning side in such disputes.
Other countries, such as Belgium, have a federal system because they are composed of a number of unique cultures that do not want to contend with a unitary national government. Belgium, for instance, includes three main regions: the French-speaking Wallonia, the Flemish-speaking Flanders and Brussels, the capital. Because these areas differ culturally and economically, the government federalized itself to give the different communities some autonomy. However, a national government still controls certain aspects of life.Learn more about Types of Government
Dual federalism is when a national government and a state government operate individually, as was the case for the United States until the Great Depression. Dual federalism naturally limits the power of the national government as it gives states the ability to make their own decisions and question the rulings of the national government.Full Answer >
According to Dr. Dianne Berman of Santa Monica College, the advantages of federalism include the ability to experiment with policy, empowerment of local government, opportunities for direct democracy and decentralization of power. The disadvantages of federalism include conflict between regional and national governments and inequality between regional governments.Full Answer >
Drug enforcement is an example of cooperative federalism, holding both federal and state governments responsible in upholding drug laws using federal agents and local police. The education system employs similar cooperative federalism, with the federal government funding schools while allowing school boards to choose their own curriculum and teacher qualifications.Full Answer >
Picket-fence federalism is a form of creative federalism that involves all levels of government, from local to national, and each level of government in this system works together on things such as transportation, health care, housing and poverty. Devices in 1964 to replace cooperative federalism, creative federalism expanded the role of the federal government into the states.Full Answer >