According to the Cornell University Law School, the powers of American federal courts come directly from the U.S. Constitution, Article III. Section 1 provides for the creation of the Supreme Court as well as "inferior" courts.
Section II specifies who and what are under the jurisdiction of federal courts. For example, according to the United States Courts website, the Supreme Court hears cases between states, cases that involve government ministers or any appealed cases that concern constitutional or federal law. The United States Courts site also describes the many varieties of lower federal courts. Some of these are the Court of Appeals, Bankruptcy Courts, District Courts, Tax Court and Court of International Trade.Learn More
Some examples of concurrent powers are the power to tax, to build roads, to borrow money and to create courts. Other such powers include making and enforcing laws, chartering banks and corporations, and usurping property with proper compensation to the owner. Concurrent powers are those powers that both the federal and the state governments in the United States (and other federalist countries) have in common with one another.Full Answer >
The federal government performs a number of functions, including maintaining national security, establishing trade agreements with foreign nations, initiating national infrastructure projects and determining the value of currency.The federal government has only those powers specifically granted to it in the U.S. Constitution. However, as time has passed, lawmakers have interpreted the enumerated powers in ways that give the federal government – and especially the executive branch – increasingly greater power.Full Answer >
The role of the judicial branch in the United States government is that of fulfilling Article IIl of the U.S. Constitution, which invests power in the Supreme Court. Congress may also see fit to establish other inferior courts. Federal judges are judges for life or until retirement, unless there is an incident of impeachment.Full Answer >
State legislatures create laws for their respective states, check the power of their state governors and reserve the power to ratify amendments to the U.S. Constitution. The laws that state legislatures create often deal with crime and contracts like marriage. State legislatures also participate in carrying out federal programs within their state boundaries.Full Answer >