The political theory of hyperpluralism holds that special-interest groups have become too numerous and influential in politics, either causing or contributing to government gridlock. It is an extension of the pluralism theory, which is the view that while power is centralized in the government, special-interest groups are able to influence that power.Know More
In a pluralistic model of government, special-interest groups such as women's rights organizations and workers' unions are able to pool their individual political power in the form of votes and money. This collective power can then be used to influence key politicians, encouraging them to legislate in a way favorable to the special-interest group.
In a hyperpluralistic model, however, too many special-interest groups are competing for political power. When so many special-interest groups are seeking a voice, conflicts arise in the things they want. For example, a number of strong anti-abortion groups seek a voice in the government, but they are countered by an equally powerful pro-choice lobby. Because their desires are exactly opposite and neither group is willing to compromise, the only choice elected officials have if they want to prevent either side from moving against them politically is to do nothing. As a result, neither side gets what it wants.
When there are too many special-interest conflicts, government can be effectively paralyzed. Government becomes weaker, and democracy is threatened because the true public preference cannot be implemented.Learn more about Branches of Government
In a legislative body, a majority whip is a member of the dominant political party whose task it is to keep voting members in line with the party's goals and ideologies. About.com expert Robert Longley explains that the majority whip ensures attendance at all important votes and legislative sessions. This official also has the authority to reward and punish members for their compliance or lack thereof.Full Answer >
In 1789, the three executive departments set up by Congress were the Foreign Affairs, Treasury and War departments. The Foreign Affairs department was later renamed the State Department.Full Answer >
The Executive Branch includes the President’s office, the Vice President’s office, the office of the First Lady, federal departments, independent agencies, boards and commissions. There are 15 federal agencies within the executive branch, including the Department of Labor, the Department of Defense and Department of Education. Over 60 standing boards and commissions are also in the Executive Branch.Full Answer >
A congressional override occurs when the U.S. Congress passes a bill into law in spite of a president's veto. Although presidents have the power to veto bills passed by Congress, the House and Senate have the constitutional right to override the veto. For this to happen, two-thirds of the members of each chamber of Congress must vote in favor of the override.Full Answer >