The iron triangle is the relationship between Congress, federal agencies and lobbying groups, according to Auburn University’s Paul Johnson, Ph.D. Special interest groups donate money to Congressional leaders to legislate for particular programs, the federal agencies use lobbyists and connections to influence legislation, and Congressional leaders receive agency support for the continuation or implementation of certain bureaucratic policies. This network of Congressional officials, lobbyists and bureaucrats forms the Iron Triangle.Know More
Interest groups provide data for agencies and Congressional members to use in committee to legitimize a particular stance. Interest groups also spend money on personal donations and the use of a contact network and use funds to craft national messaging on an issue or program. The federal agencies lean on these interest groups to press Congressional committee members with expertise in a specific area. With the backing of special interest groups and the support of federal agencies, Congressional committees act as a barrier against executive-level involvement through the rule-making or budgetary process. This limits the balance of power between the president and the rest of the executive branch.
This system is in contrast to the ideal of Weberian bureaucracy that spawned the merit-based system of most governmental hiring. It includes a strict set of rules and conduct from each member of the bureaucracy.Learn more about Branches of Government
A pocket veto occurs when Congress adjourns before the president signs a bill into law. The United States Constitution states the president has ten days to sign or veto legislation. If Congress adjourns within the ten-day period, then the bill does not become law.Full Answer >
According to the U.S. Constitution, Congress cannot grant individuals or groups titles of nobility, pass laws that punish specific individuals or groups, retroactively make something illegal or suspend people's right to know why they are being charged with a crime. This is except in cases of emergency.Full Answer >
The president asserts influence over Congress by the use of the bully pulpit and the presidential veto. The bully pulpit is a term that refers to the use of the power of a political office to convince people of an idea or piece of legislation. If Congress passes legislation that is undesirable to the president, then the president may issues a veto and return the legislation to Congress.Full Answer >
According to the 25th Amendment of the Constitution, if the vice president of the United States dies while the president is still in office, the president has the power to appoint a new vice president subject to the approval of both houses of Congress. If both the president and the vice president die, the speaker of the house becomes president, according to the Presidential Succession Act of 1947.Full Answer >