According to About.com, one of the principal arguments against the Bill of Rights was that the government would be free to ignore rights not specifically mentioned in the document. The Ninth Amendment explicitly refutes that interpretation.
The text of the Ninth Amendment has historically been among the most difficult for the courts to interpret. By claiming that citizens have rights beyond those named in the Constitution, but declining to specify them, the Ninth Amendment left a very large area open for future court precedent to establish. About.com cites Griswold vs. Connecticut (1965) as one of the more high-profile exercises in Ninth Amendment jurisprudence, as this case established a "right to privacy" that was previously only implicit in the Bill of Rights.
According to About.com, other implicit rights found under the Ninth Amendment include the right to vote, the right to a fair trial, the right to be tried by a jury of one's peers, the presumption of innocence, the right to travel unimpeded, the right to procreate and the right to marry unless the state can demonstrate a compelling interest against it. About.com also lists the principle of judicial review as being among the unenumerated provisos of the Ninth Amendment.Learn More
The First Amendment was authored by James Madison, who was inspired to write the document by Thomas Jefferson. Additionally, Madison proposed all 10 amendments of the U.S. Bill of Rights.Full Answer >
"In order to form a more perfect union" is a direct quote from the preamble of the U.S. Constitution that helps establish the purpose of the document. Prior to its independence, the United States was still a union of states, but "in order to form a more perfect union," the Constitution was created.Full Answer >
The Seventh Amendment gives citizens the rightÂ to have a jury trial in certain federal civil cases and prevents courts from overturning the decision of a jury. The amendment was proposed in 1789 by James Madison.Full Answer >
The 27th Amendment prevents members of Congress from granting themselves a pay raise or other change in compensation without the consent of the American public. Rather than allowing a change in pay for Congress to be enacted immediately, the 27th Amendment stipulates that another election must take place before the change in compensation takes effect.Full Answer >