During the impeachment process, the United States Senate is the judge and jury. The one exception to this rule is during a presidential impeachment. In this case, the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court presides.
For an impeachment conviction to occur, there must be a two-thirds Senate vote, according to the U.S. Constitution. Once someone receives a conviction from an impeachment, the penalty is removal from office. The concept of impeachment goes back to colonial America and the U.S. adopted this from England. Before choosing the Senate as the judge and jury for impeachments, the framers of the Constitution considered many other possibilities at the Constitutional Convention of 1787.