The German sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920) believed the ideal type of bureaucratic authority structure would be bound by formalized rules, allow only those specifically competent to serve and prohibit members from ownership of the means of administration or production. Weber also advocated civic education and an increased participation by society in civic affairs. Weber's analysis of bureaucracy placed an emphasis on state institutions based on rational-legal authority on those founded on traditional or charismatic leadership.Know More
Weber suggested that a proper political education would instill the virtues of both the ethic of responsibility and the ethic of conviction. His concept of the ethic of responsibility was based on his belief that there should be an ethical integrity connecting a chosen action to its consequences. The reasoning behind Weber's ethic of conviction, on the other hand, is based on an individual's ability to autonomously choose not only the means, but the end also.
Weber saw bureaucracies based on rational-legal authority as the form of government developing in modern nation-states and coupled to the rise of both nationalism and capitalism. He believed this was what differentiated Western Europe from the rest of the world and that this trend first developed within western civilization. Weber was, however, not uncritical of the trend in society towards rationalism, and felt that a societal disenchantment would set in as the world became less mystical and more explained. This process could result in society losing its more sublime values, impair the development of individualism and cause art to become less creative.Learn more about Types of Government
The advantage of a theocracy is that all members of the society theoretically share a set of common values and traditions and are compelled to obey the chief ruler, who is considered immortal and infallible. This helps ensure a cohesive society. The disadvantages include a susceptibility to abuse by unscrupulous persons and the marginalization or persecution of people who don't share the faith.Full Answer >
An autocratic leadership, also referred to as an authoritarian leadership, is one in which an individual has control over all decisions with little input from the rest of the group's members. One of the characteristics of an autocratic leadership is that group members are not often trusted with important tasks or decisions.Full Answer >
The key traits of totalitarianism are a one-party rule with a dictatorship, a dynamic leader, an ideology that sets the goals of the state, and methods of law enforcement that ultimately censor what people can read and watch. Furthermore, it includes modern technology and state control of religion and education.Full Answer >
According to Georgia Perimeter College, the acquisitive model of bureaucracy asserts that high-level bureaucrats continuously aim to increase their budgets and staff. The bureaucracy will seek out new goals to justify its existence.Full Answer >