According to the Mayo Clinic, lactation outside of pregnancy or breastfeeding, or galactorrhea, is usually caused by an abnormal excess of the hormone prolactin, which normally stimulates milk production. This, in turn, can have several causes, including drug use, certain herbs, pituitary tumors, hypothyroidism or excessive breast stimulation. Galactorrhea can also manifest without any known cause or in response to injuries of the breast or spinal cord.Know More
The Mayo Clinic states that galactorrhea is not, in itself, a cause for alarm. This is particularly the case if it is accompanied by the use of birth control pills, prescribed opiates, antidepressants, antipsychotics or blood pressure controlling drugs. If hormone levels are not raised, it may just be due to the variability of sensitivity to prolactin in different individuals.
According to the Mayo Clinic, even those who are unable to become pregnant, including men and newborns, can sometimes experience abnormal milk production. In men, it's a sign of testosterone insufficiency, especially if it's accompanied by breast enlargement, tenderness and a decrease in libido. In newborns, this is typically a result of the connection between mother and child. While in the womb, the newborn is exposed to high levels of maternal estrogen, which can cause some breast development and milk production.Learn more about Women's Health
Most urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria that enter the urinary tract from the skin around the anus or the vagina, according to Healthline. Girls are more susceptible because their urethra is shorter and closer to the anus, making it easier for the bacteria to enter the urethra.Full Answer >
The pain of an endometrial biopsy is caused by cramping of the uterus as the doctor inserts the device used to obtain the tissue sample through the cervix and scrapes cells from the uterine wall. Cramps often continue throughout the procedure and for some time afterward, says WebMD.Full Answer >
Vertigo in women can be caused by vestibular neuritis or labyrinthitis, Meniere's disease, acoustic neuroma or a reduction in blood flow to the brain's base, according to eMedicineHealth. Neck injury, head trauma and migraine headaches may also bring on vertigo. Various disease states may also be the cause, including multiple sclerosis and diabetes.Full Answer >
Hyperplasia, or thickening, of the endometrium, is most often caused by an excess of estrogen without progesterone, according to the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, or ACOG. This condition usually occurs after menopause when ovulation ceases or during perimenopause when ovulation is irregular. In either scenario, since ovulation does not occur, progesterone is not made, and the endometrium may continue to grow instead of shed its lining.Full Answer >