DNA differs from RNA in both structure and function. The two molecules have different types of sugars, vary in the types of nitrogenous bases in each, are found in different places and do different things within the cell.Know More
First of all, DNA and RNA don't have the same sugar in their backbones; DNA contains deoxyribose, which contains one less oxygen atom than ribose, the sugar in RNA. As for nitrogenous bases, DNA contains adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine; RNA consists of adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil. The overall structure of the two molecules also differs: DNA has two strands, while RNA only contains one strand.
DNA lives in the nucleus of a cell and cannot traverse the nuclear membrane, whereas RNA enters and exits the nucleus easily. DNA contains the plans for making proteins; however, because it cannot leave the nucleus, an RNA copy is made of the DNA template, and this RNA copy, called messenger RNA, leaves the nucleus.
Several types of RNA perform different functions within the cell. Messenger RNA travels to structures called ribosomes. Within the ribosomes, another type of RNA, transfer RNA, brings the various amino acids that make up proteins to the ribosome. The messenger RNA provides the code so that the transfer RNA can bring the correct amino acid to connect to the growing protein chain. Ribosomal RNA forms part of the structure of the ribosome. DNA, however, consists of only one type.Learn More
RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is responsible for the transfer of genetic information to cell components called ribosomes. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is responsible for the transfer and duplication of long-term genetic information during cell reproduction. They are both essential to the process of creating new organisms and the biological functions of organisms.Full Answer >
The two main differences between a clinical and an ordinary thermometer are their functions, because an ordinary thermometer measures humidity, while a clinical thermometer measures the temperature of the human body, according to Dictionary.com. However, a clinical thermometer cannot read temperatures below 34 C or over 44 C.Full Answer >
The most basic difference between DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase is that DNA polymerase is used in the replication of DNA, while the RNA polymerase transcribes DNA to RNA. DNA polymerase also makes fewer mistakes than RNA polymerase so the replicated DNA is more accurate than newly transcribed RNA.Full Answer >
Each chromosome in the cell nucleus contains DNA compressed to over 10,000 times shorter than it would be if it were to be stretched out. Despite this compression, each chromosome is capable of rapidly unwinding, taking up new complementary nucleotides and reforming during each cycle of mitosis.Full Answer >