Stage IV is the final stage of pancreatic cancer. It is indicated by the spread of cancer to distant sites, according to Texas Oncology, and it is characterized by involvement of the lungs, liver or adjacent organs such as the spleen or stomach or may spread to the bowel.Know More
Stage IV pancreatic cancer is usually only classified as such following the completion of surgery. This stage of cancer can be further divided into two groups: stage IVA and stage IVB. Stage IVA pancreatic cancer is confined locally but involves adjacent blood vessels or organs, so its location hinders surgical removal. Other terms used for stage IVA pancreatic cancer include locally advanced or localized pancreatic cancer. By contrast, stage IVB pancreatic cancer has spread to distant organs beyond the pancreas; this stage most typically involves the liver. Stage IVB pancreatic cancer is metastatic cancer, according to Texas Oncology.
Treatment approaches for stage IVA and stage IVB pancreatic cancers vary by patient, but most stage IVA pancreatic cancer is treated by inducing remission, while stage IVB treatment plans generally only look to control symptoms and pain. Most stage IV pancreatic tumors cannot be removed surgically. For this reason, Texas Oncology states that pancreatic cancer at this stage is rarely curable and usually hard to control.Learn More
According to the National Cancer Institute, during the final stages of lung cancer, a patient suffers myoclonus, dyspnea, fatigue, cough, rattle, delirium and fever. A study of 200 cancer patients revealed that noisy breathing, pain and urinary dysfunction were the most frequent symptoms during the last 48 hours of life.Full Answer >
Pancreatic cancer can run in families, making it hereditary, but it can also develop later in life, according to Johns Hopkins Medicine. Pancreatic Cancer Action reports that as of 2014, 5 to 10 percent of pancreatic cancer is hereditary.Full Answer >
Most types of cancer are classed as belonging to stages 0, I, II, III or IV. The stage assigned to the cancer refers to the extent of its spread at the time of diagnosis. According to Cancer.Net, which stage a cancer is at determines the recommended course of treatment and the likely prognosis for the patient.Full Answer >
The three main factors that contribute to pancreatic cancer are genetics, exposure to carcinogens and chance. Pancreatic cancer begins when the DNA of a single cell is damaged and the cell begins to function abnormally. The exact cause of this malfunction can never be ascertained for any given patient, but according to Johns Hopkins Medicine, certain factors are known to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer.Full Answer >