Gram-positive cocci, such as Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, are contagious. Staphylococcus aureus, for example, is a common cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia, surgical wound infections, endocarditis, osteomyelitis and skin infections. The spread of bacterial infection can be airborne, by directly using infected intravenous catheters and prosthetic implants, or by sexual intercourse.
Most of these bacteria are ubiquitous, so good personal hygiene and frequent hand washing are required to avoid diseases caused by them. Treatment of diseases caused by gram-positive cocci is primarily by administering antibiotics. Further medical treatment, such as debridement, respiratory assistance and administering intravenous fluids, may be necessary depending on the disease.Learn More
According to Dr. West at Cancer Grace, a low-attenuation lesion is a spot that appears on a radiographic image as less dense than the surrounding healthy tissue in that specific organ of the body. For example, a low-attenuation lesion could appear as a result of imaging on the liver, pancreas, kidney or thyroid.Full Answer >
The risk of getting HIV from a bone graft is extremely low, states the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. With properly screened donors, recipients have a 1 in 1.67 million chance of contracting HIV. When demineralized freeze-dried bone grafts are used, the chances drop to 1 in 2.8 billion.Full Answer >
To recover from hammertoe surgery, patients may need to use crutches or special shoes, keep their feet elevated at heart level and take care of the stitches, according to the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Stretching and exercising the toes helps keep the toes flexible and increases strength.Full Answer >
The individual level of pronation, whether under, over or normal, can be determined by measuring the arch of the foot, which can be done by a professional foot expert or podiatrist or, alternatively, a simpler test can be performed at home. To perform the test at home, water is poured into a shallow pan, the foot is dipped evenly into the water and then the foot is pressed against a thick piece of paper or cardboard — it is best for the experimenter to stand naturally on the paper. The shape of the resulting footprint can then be compared to examples of feet that exhibit under-pronation, over-pronation or normal pronation.Full Answer >